Cross-Cultural Research Methods



Type of instruction




Part of degree program


Recommended in

Semester 1-4

Typically offered in

Autumn/Spring semester

Course description

The course aims to acquaint students with methodological questions of cross-cultural research. As a first step, it discusses what research methods have been developed and what theoretical grounds they are based on in cultural and cross-cultural psychology. The course leads students through the questions that must be taken into account while planning a sound cross-cultural research: application of culturally sensitive research methods, construct equivalence, sampling, translation issues, involving quantitative and qualitative methods, methodological treatment of response biases, interpretations of results, recognition of restraints, and ethics questions.

While conducting critical methodological analysis of pieces of research work selected during the course and completed doctoral theses, based on the knowledge acquired during the course, students make recommendations as how to avoid similar shortcomings.

  • Ægisdóttir, Stefanía; Gerstein, Lawrence & Canel, Deniz (2008). Equivalence, bias, and translations methodological issues in Cross-Cultural Counseling Research. The Counseling Psychologist, 36(2), 188-219.
  • Barata, P. C., Gucciardi, E., Ahmad, F., & Stewart, D. E. (2006). Cross-cultural perspectives on research participation and informed consent. Social Science &Medicine, 62(2), 479-490.
  • Greenfield, P., M. (2001) Culture as process: empirical methods for cultural psychology. In: J.W. Berry, Y.H.
  • Poortinga, J. Pandey (eds.) Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Volume 1. Theory and Method. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Pp. 301-346.
  • Liamputtong, P. (Ed.) (2008), Doing cross-cultural research:Ethical and methodological perspectives. Dordrecht, TheNetherlands: Springer.
  • Liamputtong, P. (2010) Performing qualitative crosscultural research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Matsumoto, D., Van de Vijver, F. (2011) Cross-cultural research methods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S.H. (2006) Toward a new generation of cross-cultural research. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 1, 234-250.
  • Pareek, Udai & Rao, Venkateswara (1980). Cross-culturalsurveys and interviewing. In Harry Triandis & John Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology, Vol. 2.(pp.127-180). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.