Meteorological modeling of the land-surface–atmosphere interactions: a historical review
Short description of Course: The land-surface (non-vegetated and vegetation-covered surface) and the atmosphere are always interacting. This interaction is to be described by a coupled atmosphere/SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) model system. SVAT models are dealing with exchange processes (e.g. transport of momentum, water vapor, carbon-dioxid, metan, ozone or other trace gas) in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. The interaction could be investigated on macroscale (climatological applications) by running coupled GCM(Global Circulation Models)/SVAT model system to get insight into land-surface modulating effects of climate and vice versa. The interaction could also be investigated at smaller scales, for instance, at scales of weather events by running coupled weather prediction/SVAT model systems. In this case, we could get insight into weather modulated effects of land-surface (e.g. the impact of evapotranspiration on cloud structure and precipitation formation) and vice versa (e.g. N2O or CO2 emission after rainy events).
The development of meteorology made it clear that the role of land-surface–atmosphere interaction processes could not be neglected in the formation of weather and/or climate phenomena. The development of SVAT models is enormous in the last 30-40 years. It was mostly determined by the development of the modeling of vegetation processes. In the course of this programme, I would present the main development’s periods, the thinking-way and the further tendencies in both international and national context discussing the most important studies.
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