Type of instruction




Part of degree program


Recommended in

Semesters 1-4

Typically offered in

Autumn/Spring semester

Course description

I. Introduction 1, Definition of symbiosis 2, Subdivisions of symbiosis 3, Symbiosis and coevolution

II. Viral symbiotic associations 1, Virus-virus interactions 2, Viruses in bacteria

III. Virus in higher organisms 1, Viruses in insects 2, Viruses in algae 3, Viral inhabitants of fungi 4, Viruses in plants

IV. Bacterial symbionts 1, Bacterial symbionts of bacteria 2, Bacterial symbionts of protozoa 3, Bacterial symbionts of animals

V. Bacterial associations of plants 1, Nitrogen-fixing symbioses 1.1 Rhizobium-Legume symbioses 1.2 Actinorrhizal symbiosis

VI. Agrobacterium- plant interaction

VII. Symbiotic origin of the eukaryotic cell

VIII. Cyanobacteria as symbionts 1, Geosiphon- Nostoc 2, Gunerra- Nostoc 3, Cycas-Nostoc

IX. Animal symbioses writh cyanobacteria

X. Fungi as Symbionts 1, Mycorrhiza 2, Orchid mycorrhiza

XI. Lichens

XII. Photosynthetic associations of protozoas and invertebrates

XIII. Flowering plant symbiosis 1, Carnivorous plants 2, Ant- plant interactions 3, Insect pollinated flowers

XIV. Gene manipulation and symbiosis

  • Paracer, S and Ahmadjian V ed: Symbiosis, Oxford Univ. Press 2000