Ultrastructure and Cytochemistry

Type of instruction




Part of degree program


Recommended in

Semesters 1-4

Typically offered in

Autumn/Spring semester

Course description

1. The resolution limit in light microscopy (Airy, Abbe), the concept of the ultrastructure

2. Darkfield microscopy. Polarization microscopy (dichroism and fluorescence polarization, intrinsic and formal birefringence, positive and negative birefringence)

3. Video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy (AVEC-DIC). Nearfield microscopy (NFOM)

4. Electron microscopy (TEM, HVTEM, LVTEM, HRSEM). Electron diffraction

5. Scanning probe microscopy: scanning tunneling (STM), atomic force (AFM), chemical force (CFM) microscopy

6. Localization of metabolic processes in the cell (cell fractionation, cytochemistry). Enzyme cytochemistry. Subtractive cytochemistry

7. Affinity cytochemistry I (specific staining, decoration, lectin labeling)

8. Affinity cytochemistry II (immune labeling, in situ hybridization)

9. NMR microscopy. Infrared and Raman microscopy

10. Electron microscopic microanalysis (EDX, EELS, ESI). Ion microscopy (elemental maps, isotope maps)

11. Applications of the methods I. Compartments and vesicular traffic, coat proteins

12. Applications of the methods II. Connections, thickness, staining, composition, turnover and senescence of membranes

13. Applicatons of the methods III. Cell wall - cell membrane - cytoskeleton continuum (adhesion molecules, signaling molecules, membrane-bound motors)

14. Applicatons of the methods IV. The plant cytoskeleton (microtubule cycle and organization, general and specific moving functions of microfilaments, other trabecular structures)

  • Copies of transparencies projected during the lectures