Vegetation of Hungary

Type of instruction




Part of degree program


Recommended in

Semesters 1-4

Typically offered in

Autumn/Spring semester

Course description

Theoretical and methodological introduction

1.  Introduction to phytosociology and habitat ecology.

2.  Vegetation history of Hungary. Basic methods in vegetation science. Systematic discussion of vegetation types Part I.  Herbosa

3.  Euhydrophyte communities including free-floating vegetation.

4.  Flood swards and related communitites. Reed beds, Medium tall waterside communities, Tufted sedge tussocks, Large sedge communities.

5.  Springs, bogs, mires. Soft water and hard water springs, Tranzition mires, Raised bogs. Oligotrophic humid grasslands. Purple moorgrass meadows; Humid tall herb fringes.

6.  Collinar hay meadows. Submontane hay meadows, Humid mat-grass swards, Sub-Atlantic CallunaGenista heathlands.

7.  Dry grasslands including grassy rock debris communities and Middle European pioneer swards. Pannonic open sand steppes. Rock debris swards (on limestone and dolomite),  Siliceous rock grasslands. Pannonic semi-desert steppes; Pioneer vegetation on rocks.

8.  Semi-dry grasslands. Bromus erectus-type semi-dry grasslands. Pannonic rock steppes. Sub-Pannonic wooded steppe meadows.

9.  Ruderal communities. Characterisation of weedy vegetation. Weeds of dry and humid habitats. Majopr agricultural weeds in Hungary. Abandoned vineyards. Woodland clearings. Part II.  Lignosa

10. Temperate riverine and swamp forests and brush. Mire willow scrub, Pannonic swamp alder-ash woods, Lowland, collinar and Mediterraneo-montane willow, Pannonic willow galleries, Ash-alder woods of rivulets and springs, Mixed oak-elm-ash forests of great rivers.

11. Hard-wood forests of humid habitats. Oak-hornbeam forests, Beech forests, Mixed ravine and slope forests.

12. Forests of semidry habitats. Pannonian white oak-manna tree woods, Pannonic turkey oak-sessile oak woods. Semi-closed forests and scrubs. Pannonian karst white oak low woods, Pannonic loess steppe oak woods, Subcontinental peri-Pannonic scrub, Termophyle forest fringes.

13. Coniferous forests. Subcontinental pine-oak forests and Eastern Alpine acidophilous Scots pine woods, Medio-European beech-spruce forests.

14. Forest plantations. Black-locust stands, Poplar stands, Pine stands, other stands of introduced tree species.   

  • Hand-outs