Human growth and development

Type of instruction




Part of degree program


Recommended in

Semester 2

Typically offered in

Spring semester

Course description
  1. Developmental biology: development, growth and maturation, growth velocity, factors influencing growth, influence of hormones on growth, heredity of intrauterine growth, external environmental factors, the influence of nutritional factors on growth, growth disorders, estimating the gestational age

  2. Neonatal development, growth rhythm and the natural growth periods, morphological changes in developmental periods

  3. Developmental abnormalities: deformities, causes and forms of the congenital abnormalities, frequencies of congenital abnormalities and factors influencing them, twinning, heredity and teratogenesis

  4. Fertilization: morphology of fertilization, factors fostering fertilization, mono- and polyspermiosis, morula, gastrulation, placental biology, placentation types, foetal nutrition, the function of the placenta, hormonal correlation of the foetus and the mother, the immune system of the embryo

  5. Genital organs: male genital organs (testes, tubulus contortuses, germinative epithelium, spermiogenesis, spermiohystogenesis, spermia, biochemistry of the spermia, number of spermia, disorders of the spermia, gender of the spermia, sperm), female genital organs (ovarium, ovum, oogenesis, polar body, ovulation, yellow body, folliculus atresia, ovarial cycle, ovarium after menopause)

  6. Fertilization: development of the oogenesis, implantation, trophoblast, yolk sac, amnion cavity, exocoeloma, extraembrional mesoderma, development of the mesoderma, early development of the nervous system, differentiation of the embryonic layers, chorda dorsalis, somita

  7. Amnion cavity, liquor amnii, umbilical cord, placenta: decidua, chorion villi, structure of the placenta, placental circulation, the growth of the placenta, implantation types, placental abnormalities

  8. The development of the skeletal system: ossification, development of the joints, ossificational abnormalities, (nanosomia, chondrodystrophia fetalis, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomalacia, exostosis cartilaginea, chondroangiopathia punctata, osteochondromatosis, polytop enchondral dysostosisok, periostitis hyperplastica, osteopoikilia, osteochondritis syphilitica, cretinismus), the development of the verterbral column, chorda dorsalis, abnormal development, the development of the ribs and the sternum, the development of the skull, desmocranium, chondrocranium, chondrocranium-osteocranium, dermatocranium-osteocranium, viscero -cranium

  9. Skeletal development of the extremities: skeletal development of the upper extremities, skeletal development of the lower extremities, (abnormalities, deficiency); muscular development, abnormal muscular development, movements during prenatal development

  10. Blood, development of the vascular system, the development of the heart, developmental abnormalities, the development of the lymphatic system, developmental abnormalities of the lymphatic system, the development of the spleen

  11. The development of the digestive apparatus: the development of the mouth, the cavitas nasi, face, the tongue, teeth, the pharynx, thyroid gland, thymus, glandula parathyreoidea, stomach, small intestine, the large intestine, the liver, abnormal development

  12. The development of the respiratory apparatus: the development of the larynx, the trachea and bronchi, the pleurae, the Lungs

  13. The development of the urinary and generative organs: the development the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder, abnormal development of the urinary and generative organs, sex determination, sex chromatin, intersexual status

  14. The development of the nervous system: the development of the brain, cerebral ventricles, cortex, medulla spinalis, vegetative nervous system, adrenal glands, cranial and spinal nerves, meninges, abnormal development.

  • Noël Cameron, Barry Bogin: Human Growth and Development, Academic Press, 2012, ISBN 9780123838827

  • Sadler, T.W.: Langman's Medical Embryology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, ISBN 9781451113426

  • Hendrik Jan Donkelaar, Martin Lammens, Akira Hori: Clinical Neuroembryology: Development and Developmental Disorders of the Human Central Nervous System, Springer, 2014, ISBN 9783642546877