Neuroanatomy II

Type of instruction




Part of degree program


Recommended in

Semesters 1-4

Typically offered in

Autumn/Spring semester

Course description

1. Evolutionary lines of structure of vertebrate telencephalon. Classical and modern notions, overview with drawings and ppt files. Modern explanation of structure of avian telencephalon, overview of different pallial and striatal structures.

2. Nervous system of birds I. Dissection of bird's brain, preparation of middle and inner ear, opening of orbit and identification of eye moving muscles. Removal of brain.

3. Nervous system of birds II. Orientation on the removed brain. Cutting sections of the brain (cross-, sagittal and horizontal sections by a razor blade or vibratom), superficial staining of sections and identification of parts. Total sections of the entire head.

4. Nervous system of mammals I. Dissected animal is either a cat or a rat. Removal of skin from facial parts and observation of trigeminal nerve (V/2) innervating follicles of sinus hairs. Tangential section of the skin, examination of hair follicles. Dissection of branches of a. axillaris – a. brachialis, and plexus brachialis.

5. Nervous system of mammals II. Opening of pleural and peritoneal cavity. Identification of nn. intercostales on the inner surface of thoracic muscles. Examination of truncus sympathicus and nn. splanchnici and their adjoining to ggl. coeliacum and ggl. mesentericum anterior. Observation of plexus sympathicus on the surface of arteria mesenterica anterior. Fixation of the carcass by immersion into formalin.

6. Nervous system of mammals III. Dissection of n. ischiadicus from fossa poplitea, follow it through gluteus muscles up to the vertebral canal. Opening of vertebral canal, dissection of branches of plexus lumbalis and sacralis up to the spinal cord. Preparation of spinal cord (fila radicularis, radix dorsalis et ventralis and ggl. spinale).

7. Nervous system of mammals IV. Opening the skull, dissection of the brain in situ from dorsal direction. Observation of venous sinuses, cutting the meninges and removal of the brain. Identification of major brain parts and cranial nerves.

8. Nervous system of mammals V. Cutting frontal, sagittal, parasagittal and horizontal sections of the brain (by a razor blade or vibratom), superficial staining of sections and identification of parts.

9. Study of the human brain I. Observation of the surfaces of brain removed from skull, examination of pia mater and cisterns of liquor. Identification of major brain parts and cranial nerves. Study of mediansagittal and Flechsig sections.

10. Study of the human brain II. Examination of ventricles, identifications of bordering structures, basal ganglia and capsules. Study of diencephalon, thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus.

11. Structure of brain stem and cerebellum. Examination of sections of mesencephalon, pons and cerebellum, observation of fourth ventricle.

12. Study of the cross-sections of brain stem stained for myelinated fibers by a magnifying glass and microscope.

13. Neurohistology of mammals I. Examination of peripheral nerve longitudinal and cross-sections, peripheral ganglia, n. opticus c-s., spinal cord c-s., medulla oblongata (closed and open parts).

14. Neurohistology of mammals II. Examination of sections of pons, CGL, cerebellum, hippocampus - entorhinal cortex complex, primer motor and sensory cortex (Luxol – Fast blue stained sections).

  • Richard E. Brown Introduction to Neuroendocrinology Cambridge University press 1996

  • Duane E. Haines: Neuroanatomy: An Atlas of Structures, Sections, and Systems, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008, ISBN 9780781763288

  • Kandel et al. Principles of Neuronal Science Elsevier 2000

  • Siegel et al. Basic Neurochemistry Lippincott-Raven 1999

  • Douglas J. Gould, Jennifer K. Brueckner: Sidman's Neuroanatomy: A Programmed Learning Tool, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007, ISBN 9780781765688