1. Introduction: cellular and molecular characteristics of neuronal cells. Postmitotic properties, cell migration and neurite elongation. The importance and maintenance of surface/cell body ratio in neurons. The major intercellular connections between the cells of the nervous system.
2. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic origin of the cells of the nervous system: classification of neurons and glial cells.
3. Neuronal stem cells. Development of the postmitotic, non-migratory neuronal cell. Humoral effects and cell-to-cell connections directing neuronal cell fate and properties.
4. The polarity of neuronal cells. Separation, maturation and regulation of axonal and dendritic intracellular transport mechanisms.
5. Mosaic structure of neuronal cell membrane I: presynaptic components. Formation of the exocyst complex and its functioning. General and neuron-specific secretion.
6. Mosaic structure of neuronal cell membrane II: postsynaptic components and their interactions. Formation and components of the PSD complex. Synaptic and non-synaptic signal transduction in neurons.
7. Mosaic structure of neuronal cell membrane III: electrically excitable membrane properties. Distribution, functioning and regulation of voltage-dependent ion channels. Formation and role of the myelin sheath.
8. Integratory actions of neurons: spatial and temporal summation of information. The importance of differences in the distribution of ion channels between dendrites/soma/axons or in the proximal or distal segments.
9. Neuronal networks. Neuronal plasticity: LTP, LTD.
10. Metabolisms of neuronal cells I. Energy balance in neurons: uptake, storage and use of fatty acids, amino acids or carbohydrates.
11. Metabolisms of neuronal cells II. Effects of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, growth factors on the metabolic activity of neurons.
12. Glial-neuronal interactions: maintenance of metabolisms and neuronal functions.
13. Role of non-neuronal components in the maintenance of nervous system homeostasis.
14. Injury and regeneration in the nervous system. Regeneration of central nervous neurons, axonal sprouting. The possibilities to regenerate peripheral nerves. Astroglial reactions to injury.
Larry R. Squire eds. Fundamental Neuroscience, Academic Press, 2013, ISBN 9780123858702