Plant Molecular Biology II
- DNA transcription. Classes of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases in plant nuclei, stuctures and function. RNA polymerases in plastids and mitochondria. Steps of RNA biosyntesis initiation elongation and termination, Transcription in the autonomous organelles.
- RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and their function in plant cells. PolyA polymerases. Regulation of transcription. (Cis-elements, trans-factors)
- Classification of RNAs of plant cells. Distinct sets of universal RNAs in the cytosol, and organelles of the plant cells and their functions in translation. Structure of tRNAs in the cytosol and in the organelles. Structrure and functional domains of rRNAs in the cytoplasm and in the organelles of plant cells.
- Function of mRNAs in translation. Structural differences between mRNAs of the cytoplasm and the mRNAs of organelles. Modifications of mRNA. Structure and function of RNA of RNase P. Characteristics of RNA component of signal recognition particle and its function.
- Additional classes of small, stable RNAs. Uridine-rich RNAs in the nucleus and in the nucleolus (snRNA, snoRNA). Role of guide-RNA in editing, and transfer-messenger RNA in translation of truncated mRNAs. Structure and function of telomerase RNA component.
- RNA molecules vith catalytic activity; types of ribozymes. Antisense RNAs and their function. RNAs in the regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. RNA interference, silencing.
- Plant RNA viruses and viroids. Types of organization of virus genome RNA. Replication and life cycle in the plant cell, pathogenity.
- Overview of three phases of translation. Structure of different set of ribosomes in the cytolpasm, plastids and mitochondria. Functional domains of ribosomes. Activation of amino acids, role and types of synthetases. Specificity of synthetases, proofreading.
- Steps of procaryotic initiation in organelles. Steps of eukaryotic initiation in the cytosol. Types and functions of initiation factors in the cytosol and organelles.
- Comparison of elongation steps and the participating elongation factors of procaryotic and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis. Structure and function of elongation factors. Similarities and differences in the termination in the organelles and cytosol of plant cells. Structure and function of release factors.
- Regulation of protein synthesis in the organelles and in the cytosol. Specific inhibitors affecting different phases of protein synthesis. Protein synthesis with ribosome-independent mechanism.
- Intracellular traffic of proteins in the cell. The endomembrane independent pathway and the secretion transport. Signals determining destination. Mechanisms of protein transport into plastid outer and inner envelop, the stroma and the thylacoid membrane and lumen.
- Mechanisms of protein transport into outer and inner membrane and the matrix of mitochondria. Protein export and import across the nuclear pore complex. Specificities of peroxisomal protein transport.
- Vesicular transport of proteins through the compartments of secretory pathway (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, Trans-Golgi network, vacuoles and plasmalema). Pathways of the protein body formation. Oil body formation. Endocytosis.
- Physiological role of protein degradation. Classification of proteases. Protease components of cell compartments. Degradation in proteasome complex of biquitin-tagged proteines. Structure and proteolytic activity of proteasomes. Structure and function of ClpAp protease system in chloroplasts. Proteasome-independent degradation of proteines in cytosol and organelles.
Current reviews in Annual Review of Plant Sciences, - Biochemistry, - Cell Biology, - Genetics and Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology