Type of instruction




Part of degree program


Recommended in

Semester 3

Typically offered in

Autumn semester

Course description

1.-2. Basics of oncopathology. Hypertrophy, hypotrophy, hypoplasia, hyperplasia, dysplasia, metaplasia and neoplasia, neoplasma, tumour, benign and malignant tumours. Malignant transformtion as growth (cell cycle) and differentiation disorder. Events of tumor growth, staging and phenomenology. Natural classification of tumours by their original cell type.

3. Phenotypical, genotypical and cytogenetical properties of the malignant cells. Tumour markers, neoantigenes and the determination of the origin of the tumour cells. Tumour specific transplantation antigens.Importance of the immuncytochemical methods. 4. Malignant cell populations: diversity, malignant clones, rediversification, inherent genetical instability. Tests to show malignant cells. Properties of the invasive malignant cells and metastatising cells. Events in the metastatic process. Mode, mechanism, organ preference and randomness of metastasis.

4. Multistage carcinogenesis and its proofs. Chemical carcinogenesis and types of carcinogens. Role for Xenobiotic metabolism in chemical carcinogenesis.

6. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Mutagenic and carcinogenic tests. Physical carcinogenesis: role for irradiations and mechanical effects.

7. Basics of cell cycle regulation. Mode of action of the cyclin-CDK complexes at their check points: Intracellular automatism of cell cycle.

8. Discovery of tumour suppressor genes and their role in cell cycle regulation (P53, PRB, P107, P130 etc.).

9. Mode of action of mitogens with special respect of vertebrate growth factors. The main pathway of growth factos' signalisation. An overlook of the receptor tyrosine kinase-ras-MAPkinas signalisation pathway.

10. Retroviruses. Transforming retroviruses. Viral, cellular (proto-) and activated cellular onc genes. Classification of the onc genes according to functions of their products.

11. Isolation of c-onc genes and targeting them into cultured cells.Tests for transformation and tumorigenicity. Identification of activated onc genes from tumours.

12-14. Transforming DNA viruses. Modes and mechanisms of DNA-viral transformation: viral oncogenes and their transforming (tumour) antigens. Mode and mechanisms of actions of viral tumour antigenes. Adenoviruses, Polyomaviruses (SV40, mouse polyomavirus, BKV, JCV), Papillomaviruses (CRPV, BPV, HPV). Role of HPV in development of human malignancies. Herpesviruses (role of Epstein-Bahr virus, and other herpesviridae in human tumorigenesis), Hepadnaviridae, etc.

  • Electronic material is available in internal home page of the Department.

  • Asterios S. Tsiftsoglou, Alan C. Sartorelli, David E. Housman, T. Michael Dexter: Tumor Biology: Regulation of Cell Growth, Differentiation and Genetics in Cance, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013, ISBN 9783642611803